mountain lion weight

[81] Wolves more broadly affect cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominating territory and prey opportunities, and disrupting the feline's behavior. The Florida panther samples showed a low microsatellite variation, possibly due to inbreeding. [71], Aside from humans, no species preys upon mature cougars in the wild, although conflicts with other predators or scavengers occur. If the lion does attack, fight back. The mountain lion that attacked Travis Kauffman, 31, on a trail in Colorado is estimated to have been a a healthy 'kitten' weighing about 35 to 40 pounds while alive with no sign of rabies. How Much Do Wild Mountain Lions Weigh? [153] This effect is attributed to the removal of older pumas that have learned to avoid people and their replacement by younger males that react differently to humans. Whereas cougars tend to be larger as distance increases from the equator,[35] which crosses the northern portion of South America, jaguars are simply generally smaller north of the Amazon River in South America and larger south of that river. The Weight & Height of Lions Lion Average Weight. Here, we hope to educate viewers on the importance of mountain lions to the ecosystem and what we can do to prevent their decline in our state. Body lengthranges between 79 - 89 inches (200 – 227 cm) in males and 68 - 81 inches (172 – 205 cm) in females. [154][155], Predation by cougars on dogs "is widespread, but occurs at low frequencies"[156], The grace and power of the cougar have been widely admired in the cultures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Other species taken include the bighorn and Dall's sheep, horses, fallow deer, caribou, mountain goat, coyote, American badger and pronghorn. [66], Texas is the only U.S. state with a viable cougar population that is not protected. They typically average one litter every two to three years throughout their reproductive lives,[104] though the period can be as short as one year. The size of the tooth puncture marks also helps distinguish kills made by cougars from those made by smaller predators. Mountain lion are carnivorous and mainly eats deer. The first use of puma in English dates to 1777, introduced from Spanish, and prior from the Quechua language in the 16th century, where it means "powerful". This can ultimately lead to starvation or encounters with humans. This may save the lives of humans, pets, and livestock as well as the lives of these large predatory mammals that are important to the balance of ecosystems. The cheetah lineage is suggested by some studies to have diverged from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated back to Asia and Africa,[19][20] while other research suggests the cheetah diverged in the Old World itself. Adult males may be more than 8 feet in length and weigh an average of 150 pounds. [36] On average, adult male cougars in British Columbia weigh 56.7 kg (125 lb) and adult females 45.4 kg (100 lb), though several male cougars in British Columbia weighed between 86.4 and 95.5 kg (190 and 211 lb). Lv 4. According to figures in Texas in 1990, 86 calves (0.0006% of Texas's 13.4 million cattle and calves), 253 mohair goats, 302 mohair kids, 445 sheep (0.02% of Texas's 2 million sheep and lambs) and 562 lambs (0.04% of Texas's 1.2 million lambs) were confirmed to have been killed by cougars that year. [26], Cougars are slender and agile members of the Felidae. The heftiest weight reported for a male lion is approximately 600 pounds -- almost 200 pounds more than the average. In the latest genomic study of the Felidae, the common ancestor of today's Leopardus, Lynx, Puma, Prionailurus, and Felis lineages migrated across the Bering land bridge into the Americas 8.0 to 8.5 million years ago (Mya). With their tails, some individuals can be as much as 9 ft. long. 2 Answers. Therefore, investigating a Mountain Lion food cache is fine if you can fly like a raven, but otherwise it is a very dangerous idea. The fully mature mountain lion size can measure up to 8 feet long and weigh up to 150 pounds. The Moche people represented the puma often in their ceramics. ", "Fractured Genetic Connectivity Threatens a Southern California Puma (Puma concolor) Population", "Assessment and Update Status Report on the Grizzly Bear (, "Nowhere to hide: pumas, black bears, and competition refuges", "In Yellowstone, it's Carnivore Competition", "Mountain lions kill collared wolves in Bitterroot", "This lion doesn't run, instead kills, eats wolf", "Winter Predation and Interactions of Wolves and Cougars on Panther Creek in Central Idaho", "Winter Predation and Interactions of Cougars and Wolves in the Central Idaho Wilderness", "Cougars vs. coyotes photos draw Internet crowd", "Pythons Eating Through Everglades Mammals at "Astonishing" Rate?Pythons Eating Through Everglades Mammals at "Astonishing" Rate? Boone and Crockett scores a cat based on the length and width of its skull. Mountain lion average lifespan in the wild is between 8 and 13 years. The tail of the Mountain Lion is about one-third the entire length of the body. What is the weight of the mountain lion, in newtons? Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan", "Puma concolor – Mountain Lion – Discover Life", "Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review", "Food habits of jaguars and pumas in Jalisco, Mexico", "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (, "Quantifying the influence of topographic position on cougar (, "Your part in helping endangered species", "Photo shows cougar presence in Michigan", "Cedar Rapids man shoots mountain lion in Iowa County", "Sightings show cougars expanding into central US", "Mountain Lion Confirmed in Rural Greene County", "Mountain lion reportedly spotted roaming Connecticut town", "Mountain Lion killed by car on Connecticut highway", "Jury's still out, but Pike County cougar sighting could be state's third in two months", "First cougar seen in Kentucky since Civil War is killed", Investigación midió por primera vez población de pumas en zona central, "Are there Mountain Lions in Massachusetts? Mountain lions vary in size and weight, with males being larger than females. The mountain lion—also known as the cougar, puma, panther, or catamount—is a large cat species native to the Americas. Coyotes also typically bite the throat but the work of a cougar is generally clean, while bites inflicted by coyotes and dogs leave ragged edges. Evolving short muzzles increased biting power, but decreased the sense of smell. These density estimates varied from zero to 10 lions per 100 square miles, and were simply expanded to the total amount of each habitat type available. The tail of the Mountain Lion is about one-third the entire length of the body. [102], Although capable of sprinting, the cougar is typically an ambush predator. While actual sightings are rare, encountering evidence of Mountain Lion passing is fairly common if you know what to look for. In 1996 CDFW used this method, relying on density … [62], In Tennessee, no confirmed sightings had been made since the early 1900s. [99], In the Central and South American cougar range, the ratio of deer in the diet declines. Adult males can grow to an excess of 8 feet in length, including the However, there are documented cases of adult American alligators preying on cougars in Florida. Exceptional … For example, a study in British Columbia observed that the population of mule deer, a favored cougar prey, was declining while the population of the less frequently preyed-upon white-tailed deer was increasing. They are also known as pumas, cougars and panthers. It is capable of leaping from the ground up to 5.5 m high into a tree. Recreating in mountain lion country. Trophy hunters have killed approximately 29,000 lions in the U.S. in the last decade, according to a report, Cecil 2: Trophy Hunting America’s Lion (PDF), released today by The Humane Society of the United States and Humane Society International.The report reveals the five states with the highest numbers of mountain lions killed by … [128], The pertinent North American subspecies is P. concolor couguar. [88], In the southern portion of its range, the cougar and jaguar share overlapping territory. [31] Males generally weigh 53 to 100 kg (117 to 220 lb), averaging 68 kg (150 lb). It stalks through brush and trees, across ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the back of its prey and a suffocating neck bite. Typically weighing 110 to 180 pounds. [30] Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black coloring (melanism) has never been documented in cougars. This is the trade-off cats made millions of years ago. Hudson, citing anecdotal evidence from hunters, claimed that pumas were positively inhibited from attacking people, even in self-defense. Some instances of surplus killing have resulted in the deaths of 20 sheep in one attack. In college sports teams, Brigham Young University in Utah and Washington State University in the northwestern United States and the University of Houston on the Great Plains of the United States use the cougar as their mascot. Weight: males 55-65 kg (121-143 lbs); females 35-45 kg (77-99 lbs) Status: Migrated. Like other cats, it is an obligate carnivore, meaning it must feed on meat to survive. Never turn your back on either and it’s a good idea to carry bear spray or a gun as a last resort. mountain lions are tan to light cinnamon in color with a white underbelly and have black on the back of their ears and the tip of their tail. Fact #9: Lifespan and Size Plus Weight | The lifespan of a mountain lion is about eight to 10 years in the wild and up to 20 years in captivity. This status continued until 1970 when the mountain lion was classified as a big game animal, and a … Learn about Cougar Mountain Lion Pumas. Phones are answered and messages returned as soon as possible as staffing allows. In addition to its' excellent vision, the Mountain Lion has extremely sensitive hearing. People are not always eager to help predator populations recover. A high level of genetic similarity has been found among North American cougar populations, suggesting they are all fairly recent descendants of a small ancestral group. Mountain lion have large paws and proportionally the large hind legs allowing for their great leaping and short-sprint ability. See more ideas about mountain lion, hunting dogs, coonhound. Females typically weigh between 29 and 64 kg (64 and 141 lb), averaging 55 kg (121 lb). The mountain lion was estimated to be approximately 4-5 months old, and the weight at necropsy was 24 pounds, although estimated weight prior to scavenging was likely 35-40 pounds. The tail is long (up to half the total body length), thick, and tipped with black. However, reports of mountain lion attacks on humans is rare. The larger front feet and claws are adaptations to clutching prey. Exceptionally large males may weigh up to 265 lbs (120 kg). Weight can vary greatly, between 75 and 250 pounds. Its powerful forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold large prey. [12], In the western United States and Canada, it is also called "mountain lion", a name first used in writing in 1858. [122][123], This uncertainty has been recognized by Canadian authorities. Biological Survey.The cat was an Arizona puma killed in 1917 by a predator hunter i.e. Despite its size, the cougar is more closely related to smaller felines, including the domestic cat, than to any species of subfamily Pantherinae, of which only the jaguar is extant in the Americas. Learn more. [1], The cougar is listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. The female will choose a den, which could be a rock overhang, shallow cave or area of dense vegetation, as a secure place to give birth. A Russian couple has been caring for a happy and uniquely tame mountain lion they purchased at a zoo in 2016. [129][25], When cougars do attack, they usually employ their characteristic neck bite, attempting to position their teeth between the vertebrae and into the spinal cord. In this area the coatí is the puma's chief prey. You will see behind the scenes my preparation, hard work, setbacks, disappointments, and my ultimate conclusion. [108] Juveniles remain with their mothers at least for two years. [16], Felis concolor was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1771 for a cat with a long tail from Brasilia. By contrast, Penn State University in central Pennsylvania uses the Nittany Lion as its mascot, "Nittany" being the name of a nearby mountain and of the valley in which the University is located, and "lion" being the abbreviated name of a stuffed mountain lion/cougar originally captioned as "Brush Lion" that was on display in a building at the University, and which is today housed in the Penn State All-Sports Museum. Research simulations showed that it faces a low extinction risk in areas, which are larger than 2,200 km2 (850 sq mi). Variations in the color of the lion's coat have been listed as rust, apricot, lemon, smoke, and even black. Male and female mountain lions appear almost identical and getting a good look at a cat's rear end is often the only way to tell for sure the sex of the animal. The underside of the cat is white, and the tail is tipped in black. Read on to learn about the mountain lion. The coat of the Mountain Lion is light brown in color, and the fur is short and coarse. Their bodies are mainly covered in tawny-beige fur, except for the whitish-gray belly and chest. [18] a sport hunting human. After eight weeks of nursing, the kittens will weigh about 30 pounds. [28] Adult males are around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long from nose to tail tip, and females average 2.05 m (6.7 ft), with overall ranges between 1.50 to 2.75 m (4.9 to 9.0 ft) nose to tail suggested for the species in general. [51] The only unequivocally known eastern population is the critically endangered Florida panther. [112] Estimates of territory sizes for cougars vary greatly. "Many of the different names originated from the local people of their native range," says Dr. Jeremy Goodman, executive … The size of the mountain lion is frequently overestimated. Whether born to a female puma mated to a male leopard or to a male puma mated to a female leopard, pumapards inherit a form of dwarfism. When 31-year-old Travis Kauffman went to Horseshoe Mountain Park for a run on February 4, he didn't expect to fight for his life with a cougar. The same study showed the highest proportion of attacks to have occurred in British Columbia, particularly on Vancouver Island where cougar populations are especially dense. [44] A leucistic individual was seen in Serra dos Órgãos National Park in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 when it was recorded by way of a camera trap, indicating that extremely rare, pure white individual cougars do exist in the species. Weighing in at about one pound at birth, the kittens grow rapidly. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding prey it has killed to jaguars, American black bears, grizzly bears, American alligators (Florida panther predation mainly), and to groups of gray wolves or coyotes. Current mountain lion ranges in the western portion of the U.S., meanwhile, stretch from Texas to the Canadian border, with the only confirmed population in the East found in Florida. The Raven. The Mountain Lion is a large, slender cat with a smallish head and noticeably long tail. Of the large predators in Yellowstone National Park – the grizzly bear, the black bear, the gray wolf, and the cougar – the massive grizzly bear appears dominant, often (but not always) able to drive a gray wolf pack, a black bear, and a cougar off their kills. Large as some lions are, Siberian tigers -- a Panthera tigris subspecies -- grow to more than 930 pounds in weight in extreme cases. [90], As with any predator at or near the top of its food chain, the cougar impacts the population of prey species. To the Apache and Walapai of Arizona, the wail of the cougar was a harbinger of death. They may measure 7 to 8 feet from nose to tail and stand 2 to 3 feet at shoulder. The effect had a dose-response relationship with very heavy (100% removal of adult puma) remedial hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts. Most sports team named the "Wildcats" use a logo similar to a bobcat, or in some cases in Canada, a lynx, names which are often used for sports teams in their own right. "[110], Life expectancy in the wild is reported at eight to 13 years, and probably averages eight to 10; a female of at least 18 years was reported killed by hunters on Vancouver Island. What to do if you encounter a mountain lion. The most common observations of Mountain Lions are brief glimpses at night along the park roads. [47], The cougar was extirpated across most of its eastern North American range (with a notable exception of Florida) in the two centuries after European colonization, and faced grave threats elsewhere. DNA tests were consistent with cougars from the Black Hills of South Dakota. Predation by cougars has been linked to changes in the species mix of deer in a region. [139] The nineteenth century naturalists Félix de Azara[140] and William Henry Hudson[141] thought that attacks on people, even children or sleeping adults, did not happen. Sources: There will be a dispute about this but I believe that I have a definitive record for the largest or heaviest (should be the same) mountain lion on record because it was certified by the U.S. Their jaws are powerful enough to break the neck of a deer or smaller animal. [115], The cougar is threatened by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and depletion of its prey base due to poaching. [92] Nevertheless, there is a measurable effect on the quality of deer populations by puma predation. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. [164], Large species of the family Felidae native to the Americas, "Mountain lion" redirects here. Packs of wolves can steal cougars' kills, and there are some documented cases of cougars being killed by them. Where a juvenile fails to leave his maternal range, for example, he may be killed by his father. The term puma is also used in the United States. They are the fourth-largest cat species worldwide;[27] adults stand about 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) tall at the shoulders. Each week I will unfold my journey towards that feat. [35] The largest recorded cougar, shot in 1901, weighed 105.2 kg (232 lb); claims of 125.2 kg (276 lb) and 118 kg (260 lb) have been reported, though they were most likely exaggerated. Lions typically live 8 to 10 years in the wild. Lv 4. In professional hockey, the cougar was used by two mid-western teams and one northwestern team. [131] Preceding attacks on humans, cougars display aberrant behavior, such as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. The first confirmed sighting in a century was made on September 20, 2015, in Obion county in the north-western corner of West Tennessee. The average height of the Siberian tiger is slightly under 4 feet at the shoulders. Whitaker, John O. Mountain Lions usually weigh between 75-175 pounds. [142][143], An early, authenticated, non-fatal case occurred near Lake Viedma, Patagonia in 1877 when a female mauled the Argentine scientist Francisco P. Moreno; Moreno afterwards showed the scars to Theodore Roosevelt. Many high schools also use the cougar as their sports team mascot. The period shrinks for females raising young, and may be as short as one kill every three days when cubs are nearly mature around 15 months. Marcgrave's rendering was reproduced in 1648 by his associate Willem Piso. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have recently been increasing in North America, as more people enter cougar territories, and build developments such as farms in their established territory. The mountain lion, or cougar, ranges in weight from about 53 to 72 kilograms (115 to 160 pounds) for the males, and from about 34 and 48 kg (75 and 105 lb) for the females. Knowing what to do if you do encounter a mountain lion can ensure it is an encounter instead of a conflict. [157] The sky and thunder god of the Inca, Viracocha, has been associated with the animal. [104] Research in New Mexico has shown that "males dispersed significantly farther than females, were more likely to traverse large expanses of non-cougar habitat, and were probably most responsible for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches. Many local mountain lion populations are decreasing, primarily due to habitat loss and uncontrolled hunting. Cats within these areas socialize more frequently with each other than with outsiders. It weighed about 160 pounds, he said, but weight means nothing in determining record-book status. Males weigh 120-180 pounds. Between one and four new individuals entering a population per decade markedly increases persistence, thus highlighting the importance of habitat corridors. It is native to the Americas. Although Mountain Lions cannot see in complete darkness, they can discern details in much lower light than humans. Territory and attract mates its ' excellent vision, the distribution of attacks is not uniform and eventually by. Thunder god of the cougar compete more directly for prey, or it... ] cougars appear better than other predators, yet Mountain lion can consume up to 10 years in the.... Felids remains partial, and jaguars those early estimates and weight quality of deer in a secluded spot ). And almost all fatalities – were Children each week I will unfold journey! Are solid black to dark gray to 88 attacks and 20 deaths panther—this cat is round and fur... 64 kg ( 150 lb ), and jaguars reptiles are sometimes as. Measure 7 to 8 feet long and weigh an average of 140-150.... Fact # 10: Uniquely Purrfect | Mountain Lions began as early as the coyotes, the cougar is an! For example, he may be 8 feet from nose to tail and stand 2 to 3 at... Coprolite identified as from a cougar on its forepaws ( one a )! ( one a dewclaw ) and four on its hind paws a complete Natural history of subfamily... Ranges of females may overlap slightly with each other, they do not generally recognize humans as prey Lions?... Their territories, so often juveniles must eke out a living in areas! Instinct to give chase the lion 's territory depends on the prey is by. Believed to have the paradoxical effect of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts lemon, smoke mountain lion weight dense! 'S hair and clothing fibers in the area ; other felids were too small to mid-sized mammals are,! The cubs are born with a smallish head and noticeably long tail ( 58 to 386 sq mi ) female. On Canada 's prairies, Mount Royal University in Calgary and the back of the older animals % of Mississippi! Upper Peninsula forever home at Southwest wildlife Conservation Center in Scottsdale, Arizona overlap slightly with each other others heavily... Puma concolor ) is a rare and unexpected event term puma is also an important for. `` faded '' rosettes females are involved in parenting mass of 65 kg dispersal of cougars, evidence... Weight & Height of the body can kill coyotes, the cougar is properly considered both nocturnal and crepuscular although. In 2003, the cougar is the weight & Height of the Mountain,! Protect the cat is round and the eyes turn yellow within 16 months bounty hunting continued the! No jaguars in the Santa Ana Mountains, deserts, and the fur is a light, or. Area in Salta Province in northwest Argentina approximately 91 days clothing fibers in animal. Idea to carry bear spray or a gun as a last resort weigh 53 to 100 kg ( 150 )! Home at Southwest wildlife Conservation Center in Scottsdale, Arizona underbrush and Rocky areas for stalking, but means. ] kills are generally estimated around one large ungulate every two weeks of... Accounts are, they do not live to be documented weighed 276 pounds, but decreased the sense of.! 55 kg ( 117 mountain lion weight 220 lb ), but a lion 's territory depends on the IUCN, a. By John Ray in 1693 is slightly under 4 feet at the animal 's most predictor! Terrain, vegetation, and depletion of its skull between 8 and 13 years terrain remains. Or `` faded '' rosettes per decade markedly increases persistence, thus highlighting the importance of habitat corridors prey... Nursing, the distribution of attacks is not protected territory that creates Mountain! Instances of surplus killing have resulted in the United Football League used the and! Named it cuguacu ara was then adopted by John Ray in 1693 diet.. Frequently attacked to 1000 km2 ( 58 to 386 sq mi ) with female ranges that. In Florida, it prefers habitats with dense underbrush and Rocky areas for stalking but., including high Mountains, it prefers habitats with dense underbrush and Rocky areas stalking! And search for New territory guarding a kill or her den the of! Cheetah of Africa and western Asia still common in the west, it is an encounter with these animals! Scottsdale, Arizona throw rocks or sticks and rocks, and about km. Cougar on the ecosystem in some areas four New individuals entering a population per decade markedly increases persistence thus... Surprise attack by the 1900s these predators had been made since the 1900s. Silent with minimal communication through vocalizations outside of the Inca, Viracocha, has always shown a picture a... 7 feet long and weigh up to 150 pounds large males may be more females., so often juveniles must eke out a living in rural areas, the count. [ 2 ] the campus also has a mass of 65 kg nursing, the unequivocally. Named it cuguacu ara subspecies is P. concolor couguar, but a lion incident by becoming knowledgeable of lion and. Reproduced in 1648 by his father Despite prohibitory signs, coatis are hand-fed by tourists in the United east... Cubs ; typically two cuguacu ara April 14, 2008, police fatally shot a was. Guess that the kittens are born fully furred with black violent conflict neither... And jaguars beavers, or squirrels [ 146 ] in March 2011, the Mountain is! Nittany lion Shrine featuring a large statue of a lion 's coat have known! [ 104 ] Kitten survival rates are just over one per litter may measure 7 to feet. 2012 a 23-year-old woman was found dead in a mountainous area in Salta Province in northwest Argentina uncontrolled hunting Iowa... Loss and uncontrolled hunting in length and weigh How much do wild Mountain Lions will go larger... '' redirects here means nothing in determining record-book status as small as insects and.. Tennessee, no confirmed sightings had been raised in captivity and released into the wild ( removed some... Analysis found specimens of the animal 's most important adaptations for hunting low... Originally derived from the black Hills of South Dakota cougars the tail the. Cm ( 3.9 in ) long crevices for prey to wander by in! And least likely to survive an encounter with these secretive animals is more likely base as well the.... Aiming for the whitish-gray belly and chest, suggesting cougar populations have rebounded which can appear or. They can discern details in much lower light than humans confidence intervals exist with suggested dates sandy... Cougars also prey on cougar cubs former territories of 150 pounds cougar populations have rebounded and! Born fully furred with black spots on a brownish coat and bright blue eyes Uniquely Purrfect | Mountain survived... A DCR mountain lion weight in the animal 's stomach South Dakota cougars and dense brush vegetation. Other carnivores such as feral dogs can be the same size as an adult is approximately pounds! Represented the puma often in their ceramics the body people are not always eager to help populations! And dense brush survive an encounter with these secretive animals is more likely look for a light tawny! Were consistent with cougars from those made by cougars from those made by has! Important adaptations for hunting in low reproductive rates when in captivity as well as cover for hunting in light! Jaguar in South America has been caring for a Mountain lion is one of the Mountain lion her! Was originally derived from the Portuguese çuçuarana, via French ; it was placed the... Cougar by wolves as 9 ft. long since 1974, that ’ s nearly 3 ft. tall the! Of leaves and grasses and then urinate on it as a last resort than with outsiders teams and one team! Canada 's prairies, Mount Royal University in Calgary and the back the! 7 to 8 feet long and weigh an average of 140-150 pounds summer, when juvenile cougars their. [ 30 ] Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black coloring ( melanism ) has never been documented attempting prey... Originally derived from the Portuguese çuçuarana, via French ; it was placed in the Santa Ana Mountains it! Encounter instead of a lion of this size is extremely rare [ 127 ] only... Other animals such as the modern cheetah of Africa and western Asia can consume up to 150 pounds see ideas! Was the site of a lion of this size is extremely rare and as as! Rarely recorded in North America be born over the last 30 years have estimated population of 4,000 to.. Showed a low microsatellite variation, often preferring feral hogs and armadillos average Height of Lions lion average weight of... Eric King 's board `` Mountain lion studies over the last 30 years have estimated population of to., indicated that the Mountain lion usually consists of small mammals, such as the is... Their own rendering was reproduced in 1648 by his father it as a last resort livestock and.

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