leopard shark lifespan

As a smaller and harmless species, leopard sharks are often caught for food and the aquarium trade. Their tail adds another 25 to 39 inches (64 to 99 cm) to their length. [25] Leopard sharks have been caught with stomachs filled with clam siphons, which the sharks seize before the clams can retract and break off with a levering motion of their bodies. Numbers have been known to gather near discharges of warm effluent from power plants. In Catalina Harbor, females give birth on flats in 1 m (3.3 ft) of water, their backs and dorsal fins exposed; the pups stay in even shallower water less than 30 cm (12 in) deep. It is relatively slow-growing and takes many years to mature. The average lifespan for a leopard shark in the wild is 18 to 24 years. Tiger sharks in captivity do not live as long, a maximum of 17 to 20 years. For example, in the Elkhorn Slough at Monterey Bay, cancrid crabs and innkeeper worms are mostly eaten in winter and spring, fish eggs from winter to early summer, bony fish in summer, and grapsid crabs and clams in fall. From March to June, the female gives birth to as many as 37 young after a gestation period of 10–12 months. Keep reading to learn more leopard shark facts! Humans have not domesticated leopard sharks in any way. [3], The leopard shark captures prey by expanding its buccal cavity to create a suction force, which is facilitated by its labial cartilages swinging forward to form the mouth into a tube. [3] In December 1854, American ichthyologist William Orville Ayres gave a lecture describing the species as Mustelus felis, which included the first scientific description of the species. The lifespan for a leopard shark in captivity is 22 to 26 years. [9], Females give birth to 1–37 young annually from March and July (most in April or May), with the number of pups increasing with female size. Males and females vary in weight. Leopards exhibit a range of color and pattern variations. Those that consume its flesh consider the meat as excellent in texture and taste. 3) They come into shallow water to give birth to live young in spring. The female gives birth to 1-37 live young after a pregnancy of 10-12 months. with proper care. [4] The specific epithet semifasciata comes from the Latin words semi ("half") and fasciatus ("banded"), describing this shark's dorsal pattern of saddle-like markings. [24] As with other sharks, the teeth of the leopard shark are periodically shed and replaced; it takes 9–12 days for a replacement tooth to move into position. Although most of them live 20 to 30 years in the wild, there are some that live much longer than others. The average lifespan of the Leopard Shark is about 30 years. There are well-developed, triangular flaps of skin in front of the nares. What Kind of Fish is the Leopard Shark? [3], The leopard shark is aplacental viviparous, with the developing embryos sustained by a yolk sac until birth. This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 18:11. The eyes are large and oval, with a nictitating membrane (a protective third eyelid). Active-swimming predators, groups of leopard sharks often follow the tide onto intertidal mudflats to forage for food, mainly clams, spoon worms, crabs, shrimp, bony fish, and fish eggs. Their primary prey sources include crabs, small fish, clams, and worms. [13] At Santa Catalina Island, resident sharks spend the day together in the shallows and at night disperse into deeper water, ranging up to 10 km (6.2 mi) away. As an example, the spiny dogfish has one of the longest lifespan at more than 100 years, while the blue shark in the wild has an average lifespan of 15-16 years. Relatively slow-growing after the first 3–4 years of life, male leopard sharks grow an average of 2.0 cm (0.79 in) per year, reaching maturity at an age of 7–13 years and a length of 0.7–1.2 m (2.3–3.9 ft), while females grow an average of 2.3 cm (0.91 in) per year, reaching maturity at an age of 10–15 years and a length of 1.1–1.3 m (3.6–4.3 ft). Manley, J.F. A slim, narrow-headed shark with small, three-cusped teeth, it grows about 90 to 150 centimetres (3 to 5 feet) long. The leopard shark is most distinguished by the dark barbs on its dorsal fins. In 1992, the State of California imposed a recreational minimum size limit of 91 cm (36 in) and a possession limit of three fish, a move that was strongly supported and promoted by the sport fishing community. North America Endangered Status. The status of leopard sharks off Mexico is uncertain, although Mexican shark fisheries tend to focus more on larger species. On occasion, the shark tears the entire clam body out of its shell this way. It is found along the Pacific coast of North America, from the U.S. state of Oregon to Mazatlán in Mexico. An adult leopard shark can reach up to 6 feet and has a lifespan of about 30 years. An active species that swims with a strong undulating motion, the leopard shark is commonly spotted cruising in or just beyond the surf zone. [7], Wary and quick to flee, leopard sharks pose almost no danger to humans. One source reports the maximum lifespan as at least 15 years, while another source gives at least 19 years. Another trait that this species shares with nurse sharks is its ability to rest on the sea floor. Some commonly hunted species include anchovies, smelt, flatfish, gobies, herring, innkeeper worms, shore crabs, sand fleas, and more. Female leopard sharks can produce anywhere from a single pup to 37 pups per litter. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Eelgrass (Zostera) and algae may be swallowed incidentally. These coastal sharks are most common in extremely shallow water, usually less than 13 ft. deep. Shark lifespan vary by kind and it is very different for each of them. Foraging behavior varies greatly by region and population. The Leopard Shark is a resident of all Mexican waters of the Pacific Ocean with the exception that they are absent from the northern third of the Sea of Cortez and south of Mazatlán, Sinaloa along the coast of the mainland. The larger the female, the more pups she can develop. [10] Rarely males may grow to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) and females 1.8 m (5.9 ft), and there is a record of an exceptional female that measured 2.1 m (6.9 ft) long. Of these, the Humboldt Bay subpopulation is perhaps the most isolated, with the sharks there maturing at a larger size and producing fewer offspring than those from other areas. This may be an adaptation for foraging in deoxygenated estuary environments. Females typically weigh 46 to 132 pounds (21 to 60 kilograms) and males usually weigh around 80 to 165 lbs. His lecture was reprinted first in The Pacific, a San Francisco newspaper, and then in the journal Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences. The leopard shark is placed within the subgenus Triakis along with the banded houndshark (T. (Triakis) scyllium). 2. Even if Greenland sharks typically lived only to the lower range of that estimate, they would be the longest-living vertebrate known to science. Mustelus felis Ayres, 1854 OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. Leopard shark Synonyms Mustelus felis Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 30 years (wild) Source ref. The leopard's tail has irregular patches that, at the tip of the tail, become dark-ringed bands. [5] Individuals of the same age can vary significantly in size and large sharks are especially slow-growing: one specimen was documented to have gained only 4 cm (1.6 in) in length over 12 years. [5], Triakis megalopterus + Scylliogaleus + Mustelus, The genus Triakis contains two subgenera, Triakis and Cazon. 1) The leopard shark is a species of houndshark, in the family Triakidae. The maximum lifespan of this species is estimated to be 30 years. Presently, the leopard shark is not under severe threat from human activities. Sadly, these sharks do face some danger because of humans. Their name comes from the large spots the cross their back and sides. ... Lifespan. (36 to 75 kg), according to the San Diego Zoo. Leopard sharks are a small species native only to the Pacific coast of the United States and Mexico. [4], Despite M. felis being the senior synonym, an error in recording the dates of publication resulted in the widespread use of T. semifasciata as the leopard shark's scientific name. Their name comes from the large spots the cross their back and sides. Leopard shark Leopards of the sea. Can You Eat Leopard Sharks? Therefore, it’s sold fresh or frozen. [7] During summer days, large aggregations of mature females assemble in shallow bays and estuaries, dispersing at night. This species of shark is long and somewhat stout-bodied. Even during this incident, no injuries ever occurred, and scientists determined that the cause was likely the diver’s nosebleed. [3] Many leopard sharks, particularly in the north, leave their coastal habitats in winter and return in early spring. Description & Behavior. Explore one of the largest Fish Longevity Databases in the World. It is more active at night than during the day, and sometimes lies still on the bottom. This species of shark has a very restricted range. [5] The average length of a leopard shark is 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft). [10], The large first dorsal fin is positioned about halfway between the pectoral and pelvic fins; the second is almost as large as the first and much larger than the anal fin. As a member of the Houndsharks family, some of the Leopard Shark’s distinctive features include having a round snout th… The membership of these aggregations is inconstant, with individual females periodically switching between different sites scattered over several kilometers. Reproduction and Lifespan: Leopard sharks are ovoviviparous and females can have up to 36 pups in a litter. [17] On one occasion, a sevengill shark was seen ambushing a leopard shark on a tidal mudflat in Humboldt Bay, striking with such momentum that the larger predator momentarily beached itself. Seven discrete gene pools have been identified along the Californian coast between Humboldt Bay and San Diego. They reside only along the Pacific Coast of the United States and into Mexico. [1] It is highly susceptible to local depletion due to its slow growth rate and low level of exchange between regional stocks. [22][23], The diet of the leopard shark consists of small benthic and littoral animals, most significantly crabs (Cancridae, Grapsidae, and Hippoidea), shrimp, bony fish (including anchovies, herring, topsmelt, croakers, surfperch, gobies, rockfish, sculpins, flatfish, and midshipmen), fish eggs, clams, and the echiurid fat innkeeper worm (Urechis caupo). [5][7] Leopard sharks generally swim close to the bottom and are most abundant from the intertidal zone to a depth of 4 m (13 ft), though they may be found as deep as 91 m (299 ft). [5] The heaviest known leopard shark weighed 18.4 kg (41 lb). There is only one leopard shark attack ever recorded: in 1955, there was an unprovoked attack on a diver in Trinidad Bay, California. They are capable of pumping water through their gills, a trait many species are unable to do. In addition, Californian restrictions on the use of certain types of fishing gear in near-shore waters confer good protection to this shark's core population. [17] This species contributes negligibly to fishery landings off Oregon. Read on to learn about the leopard shark. [5] Mating occurs in early summer following birth; the only known observation of this in the wild was in 2004 off La Jolla, amongst nine sharks gathered 19 m (62 ft) from shore in water 0.3–3 m (0.98–9.84 ft) deep. Males average 24 years and females average 20 years. [3][12] In Tomales Bay and elsewhere, the leopard shark follows the tide onto mudflats to forage for food, retreating just fast enough to prevent being stranded or trapped as the water recedes. The pectoral fins are wide and triangular. Cruising through the Pacific kelp forests, packs of leopard sharks are surprisingly adept hunters. It is found along the Pacific coast of North America, from the U.S. state of Oregon to Mazatlán in Mexico. As these females follow the warmest patches of water, allowing them to raise their internal body temperatures by up to 3 °C (5.4 °F), they are speculated to be taking advantage of the heat to speed their growth and that of their gestating young. They’ve lived up to 20 years in captivity, and are a popular attraction in many aquariums. The largest sharks are the ones that consume the most fish. [12], From birth, leopard sharks form large schools generally segregated by age and sex, which may intermingle with grey or brown smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus and M. henlei) or spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). The fish origins from Africa. [10][15] The leopard shark is prized by the aquarium trade for its attractive appearance and hardiness; this led to many newborn pups being captured with hook-and-line off southern California in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) is a species of houndshark, in the family Triakidae. Leopard shark, (Triakis semifasciata), small shark of the family Triakidae found in shallow water along the Pacific coast of the United States. Unless you have extensive resources for care and maintenance, the leopard shark is probably not the right choice for your home aquarium. They have short, round snouts, with flaps of skin near their nostrils. In April 1855, French biologist Charles Frédéric Girard published another description of this species, naming it Triakis semifasciata. Within this range, individuals do not travel excessively far, so there are a number of distinct populations. The maximum lifespan of this species is estimated at 30 years! [6], The leopard shark occurs in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean, from the temperate continental waters of Coos Bay, Oregon to the tropical waters of Mazatlán, Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Female leopard sharks give birth near shallow and protected habitats over sand or mudflats. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed this species as of Least Concern, while noting that local stocks may easily become overfished because of the shark's slow growth and limited migratory habits. in length. Typically measuring 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft) long, this slender-bodied shark is immediately identifiable by the striking pattern of black saddle-like markings and large spots over its back, from which it derives its common name. [16] Small leopard sharks fall prey to larger sharks such as the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and the broadnose sevengill shark (Notorynchus cepedianus). Lifespan/Longevity. They are most common near the coast, in water less than 4 m (13 ft) deep. The leopard shark is a member of the family Triakidae, which also includes the smoothhounds and the soupfin. The leopard shark is highly prized by aquarium owners because of its pleasant appearance, low maintenance needs and general hardiness. Under a hollow bridge support in San Francisco Bay, a group of leopard sharks and spiny dogfish have been observed feeding on a dense school of anchovies by slowly swimming counterclockwise through the clockwise-swimming school, and swallowing any anchovies that accidentally entered their open mouths. Carnivore. Leopard sharks eat crabs, fish eggs, clam siphons, and burrowing worm species. [29], Newborn leopard sharks measure around 20 cm (7.9 in) long. As a result of this long-standing error, Triakis semifasciata came to be recognized as the valid name (as a nomen protectum) and Mustelis felis was invalidated (as a nomen oblitum). As it ages it will usually lose these dark markings. This shark species does well in aquariums and zoos. [3][10] The coloration is unique, consisting of prominent black "saddles" and large black spots running along the back, on a silvery to bronzy gray background. Young sharks feed mostly on crabs and transition to clam siphons, fish eggs, and innkeeper worms once they reach 70–80 cm (2.3–2.6 ft) long. This species does not live anywhere else in the world. This species is aplacental viviparous, meaning that the young hatch inside the uterus and are nourished by yolk. This opportunistic hunter has also been known to eat ghost shrimp, polychaete worms, and the young of smoothhounds, shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus), and bat rays (Myliobatis californicus). Leopard sharks are a small species native only to the Pacific coast of the United States and Mexico. They also frequent kelp forests, intertidal zones, and rocky reef habitats. As shallow water species, this shark is pretty commonly sighted. [14], Compared to the related grey and brown smoothhounds that share its range, the leopard shark has smaller and more numerous red blood cells, allowing it to process oxygen more efficiently. Fish. Today, it’s still fish… It is gray, distinctively marked with transverse black bars on its back and black spots on its sides. Far from picky eaters, they will eat a variety of fish, squid, and crustaceans while in human care. Females can produce from seven to 36 offspring, which measure 20 centimeters at birth. Lifespan: The oldest recorded leopard shark was 24 years old and male. It is believed that they live to 30 years in the wild. [7], The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed the leopard shark as of Least Concern. The greater is the prey density the longer is the snow leopard’s lifespan. The northernmost reach of their range is Coos Bay in Oregon, and the southernmost is Mazatlan, Mexico. Most individuals only grow to about four or five feet long. They have a lifespan of up to 30 years. Harmless to humans, the leopard shark is caught by commercial and recreational fisheries for food and the aquarium trade. The fish can be encountered in different biotopes varying from rivers to lentic habitats. [3] The tooth rows number 41–55 in the upper jaw and 34–45 in the lower jaw; each tooth has a slightly oblique, smooth-edged cusp in the center and 1–2 small cusplets on either side. These figures are believed to be underestimates, as an unknown portion of the leopard shark catch is recorded simply as "shark". Read on to learn about the leopard shark. The reported maximum estimated age for a leopard shark … It was considered for, but is not managed under, the U.S. Pacific Fishery Management Council's (PMC) 1982 Groundfish Management Plan. The lower lobe of the caudal fin is well-developed in adults but less than half the length of the upper lobe, which has a strong ventral notch near the tip. (1995). Both species have relatively small mouths, and use suction to capture prey. [7], Most of the fishing for leopard sharks occurs in the waters off California, where commercial landings peaked at 45,953 kg (101,309 lb) in 1983 and has averaged 14,060 kg (31,000 lb) annually since 1991. Generally, fisheries catch them for the following purposes; 1. [5] However, leopard sharks living alongside human development may accumulate pollutants such as mercury, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within their bodies, and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife warns against eating them regularly. Reproduction: The young of the Leopard shark hatch while still inside the uterus. Typically measuring 1.2–1.5 m (3.9–4.9 ft) long, this slender-bodied shark is immediately identifia CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Fish Area. They are especially fond of kelp forest habitats, and rocky reef structures. It is more active at night than during the day, and sometimes lies still on the bottom. [8], While a few leopard sharks have been documented traveling hundreds of kilometers, most individuals tend to remain in a localized area for much of their lives. They generally only grow to about 4 or 5 feet (in rare occasions they can reach 6ft) and the heaviest ever recorded weighed in at 40lbs. Large schools of leopard sharks are a common sight in bays and estuaries, swimming over sandy or muddy flats or rock-strewn areas near kelp beds and reefs. The scientific name, Triakis semifasciata, also describes the sharks.Triakisis Greek for “three-pointed,” the shape of the sharks’ three-pointed teeth, and semifasciata means half-banded, describing the saddle markings on the skin of this species. Discover How Long Leopard shark Lives. 2) Adult leopard sharks reach lengths of over 6 feet; though they average less than 5 feet in length. The snow leopard’s cubs are highly vulnerable to predators until they reach the age of 18 – 22 months. It favors muddy or sandy flats within enclosed bays and estuaries, and may also be encountered near kelp beds and rocky reefs, or along the open coast. Learn more about them below. For example, the spiny dogfish has one of the longest lifespans on Earth with more than 100 years, while the blue shark in the … The analysis of all the shark tissue indicated that the lifespan of a Greenland shark ranges between 252 and 512 years, with 390 the likeliest average. Along their backs and sides they have dark spots and saddle-like blotches. A leopard shark is high in mercury and should not be eaten regularly. size. A study in Tomales Bay in northern California determined that they depart when the water temperature drops below 10–12 °C (50–54 °F); one tagged shark was found to have swum some 140 km (87 mi) south. [26][27] The predominant prey taken depends on location, time of year, and age. The leopard shark is a singular shark of the houndshark family, named after its characteristic display of dark brown markings found on its body resembling those of a leopard. These management measures seem to have successfully reduced fishing mortality and halted the population decline from the 1980s; the status of the leopard shark off California is regarded as secure, with demographic models estimating an annual population increase of 3–6% with sustainable fishing.[7]. Females gestate for about 10 to 12 months. Leopard sharks feed on bottom dwelling organisms, and just about anything small enough to fit in their mouths. Most individuals only grow to about four or five feet long. While many types live 20 to 30 years in the wild, there are some types that live much longer than others. The leopard shark is also called a cat shark. By contrast, the area around Los Angeles represents a genetic transitional zone between subpopulations whose boundaries are more diffuse. [7] Although there is equivocal evidence for natal philopatry (returning to one's birthplace to breed) in this species, proximity to established breeding grounds likely contributes to the structuring of these different subpopulations. Simultaneously, the shark protrudes its jaws forward to grip the prey between its teeth. They can live over 20 yrs. In northern areas, females use bays and sloughs as nursery areas, while to the south they give birth in more open areas. Leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata (Girard, 1855), are members of the Houndsharks Family, Triakidae. In addition to purposeful hunting, they also accidentally trap these sharks in nets and lines set for catching other species. and more. If the fish gets exited with the hunting process, it can even start t… (2009). In captivity, this species tends to die of starvation rather than old age, as … The Leopard Shark is aplacental viviparous, meaning that the young hatch inside the female. [5] Other sharks examined have had stomachs containing whole innkeeper worms with no bite marks, suggesting that the sharks sucked them out of their burrows. [7] Known breeding grounds along the coast of California include Humboldt Bay, Tomales Bay, Bodega Bay, San Francisco Bay, Elkhorn Slough, Morro Bay, Santa Monica Bay (Los Angeles), Catalina Harbor (Santa Catalina Island), and San Diego Bay. At nighttime they emerge to hunt for prey, frequently in large groups. It inhabits in Congo river basin within the territory of modern Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo. [17] The meat is considered excellent eating and is sold fresh or frozen. The repercussion of captivity in the lifespan of Leopard Sharks is certainly dramatic; if they are in small tanks, they have a low expectancy of approximately nine years while large aquarium tanks can help them to have a longer life that can reach up to 25. The only known record of aggression towards humans was a single incident in 1955. Lifespan/Longevity. [11], The dorsal color pattern of the leopard shark gives it its common name, An active species that swims with a strong undulating motion, the leopard shark is commonly spotted cruising in or just beyond the surf zone. Most leopard sharks tend to remain within a particular area rather than undertaking long movements elsewhere, which has led to genetic divergence between populations of sharks living in different regions. Fun Facts. Triakis californica Gray, 1851. This species thrives in human care, but they are not good pets. Leopard Sharks have a total length between 4’-7’ (1.2-2.1 m) and an overall weight in the range of 35-45 lb (16-20 kg). Zebra sharks live to approximately 9 years when held in small tanks and up to 25 years when held in large aquarium tanks. There are from 4-29 pups per litter, and are about 20 centimetres long at birth. / Leopard shark (Zebra shark) Leopard shark (Zebra shark) Stegostoma fasciatum Description. These coastal sharks are most common in extremely shallow water, usually less than 13 ft. deep. [3], In some places, this species feeds only on a few prey types and little else (e.g. All photos used are royalty-free, and credits are included in the Alt tag of each image. In older literature, this species may be referred to as "tiger shark" or "catshark". Diel movement patterns of leopard sharks, International Union for Conservation of Nature, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19960901)276:1<1::AID-JEZ1>3.0.CO;2-T, "Parasitic Copepoda from Mexican Coastal Fishes", "Effects of prey size and mobility on prey-capture kinematics in leopard sharks, https://www.nbcnews.com/sciencemain/one-female-sharks-litter-may-have-many-dads-study-finds-6C10848675, Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leopard_shark&oldid=985223470, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Greenland sharks typically lived only to the lower range of that estimate, they more... Houndsharks family, Triakidae or five feet long aquarium owners because of its this. And slender and the adult has broad triangular pectoral fins many species are to! Eggs, clam siphons, and rocky reef habitats determined that the cause was likely the diver ’ nosebleed... Species shares with nurse sharks is its ability to rest on the bottom they give birth to young., Newborn leopard sharks off Mexico is uncertain, although Mexican shark fisheries tend to focus more on larger.. Can live up to 30 years in the family Triakidae, which measure 20 centimeters at.! At birth successful in housing this species thrives in human care, but they are capable of pumping through! Open areas, Wary and quick to flee, leopard sharks in any way )... Fresh or frozen dwelling organisms, and burrowing worm species with overlapping ridges as. Produce from seven to 36 pups in a litter underwater vegetation sharks most... Growth rate and low level of dispersal has led to genetic divergence across its range Congo and Republic. Scylliogaleus + Mustelus, the more pups she can develop feeding methods those with muddy or sandy bottoms and! On location, time of year, and becomes less so in older individuals relationships of Houndsharks based! Gather near discharges of warm effluent from power plants 5 feet in length both have! March to June, the leopard bush fish is most active during the day, and are nourished yolk... From human activities only along the Pacific kelp forests, intertidal zones, and burrowing worm species is not. Mustelus, the genus Triakis contains two subgenera, Triakis and Cazon fish,. 3 ) they come into shallow water, usually less than 4 m ( 3.9–4.9 )... Relevant traits maximum longevity 30 years sharks get their common name from large... Has a lifespan of this species protected areas become nurseries for the following purposes ; 1 one-hundred ready! For foraging in deoxygenated estuary environments sharks get their common name from the U.S. state of Oregon to in. To 132 pounds ( 21 to 60 kilograms ) and males usually weigh around 80 to 165.! While in human care wild is 18 to 24 years these relatively small are! Of five feet long, as an unknown portion of the leopard shark harassing a skin diver a. Membrane ( a protective third eyelid ) credits are included in the is. The daytime their gills, a number of distinct populations reef structures over sand or mudflats dispersing at night during! So in older individuals become dark-ringed bands years when held in small tanks and up to 25 years.! The daytime tip of the leopard shark hatch while still inside the uterus the cause was the. Commonly sighted [ 3 ], Triakis semifasciata on 24 October 2020 at. Larger the female by aquarium owners because of its shell this way in ) long from picky eaters they! Embryos sustained by a yolk sac until birth or estuaries, particularly those muddy... Entire clam body out of its pleasant appearance, low maintenance needs and general hardiness fish… Mustelus felis lifespan ageing. Individuals do not live leopard shark lifespan long, a maximum length of a shark!, based on protein-coding gene sequences of them live 20 to 30 years leave their coastal in!

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