who was emperor after commodus

Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, Commodus assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood. Commodus didn’t really bother with the duties of being an … Usapyon is the third mascot for the Yo-kai Watch franchise as well as the mascot for Yo-kai Watch Blasters: Moon Rabbit Crew. Commodus was a cruel man. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. He was the tenth of fourteen children and the only son to survive - his twin brother Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius died at the age of four. Heinz, W. (1986). At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed. One of the two praetorian prefects, Publius Tarrutenius Paternus, had actually been involved in the conspiracy but his involvement was not discovered until later on, and in the aftermath, he and his colleague, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, were able to arrange for the murder of Saoterus, the hated chamberlain. The emperor eventually decided to abandon “the reins of the empire” and chose to give “himself up to chariot-racing and licentiousness and performed scarcely any of the duties pertaining to his office.” He appointed a series of his favorites to manage the administration of his empire, each of whom seemed crueler and more incompetent than the last. He accompanied his father, Marcus, during the Marcomannic Wars in 172 and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in 176. Commodus: The True Story Of The Mad Roman Emperor Immortalized In ‘Gladiator’, Commodus exposes Lucilla’s plot in this scene from, Commodus is confronted by Maximus in the arena in this scene from. Commodus in 180 AD. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473. [29] According to Herodian, spectators of Commodus thought it unbecoming of an emperor to take up arms in the amphitheater for sport when he could be campaigning against barbarians among other opponents of Rome. But once Marcus Aurelius died in 180 A.D. (of natural causes, not at his son’s own hand, as depicted in Gladiator), Commodus hastily made peace with the tribes so he could return to Rome “to enjoy the pleasure of the capital with the servile and profligate youths whom Marcus had banished, but who soon regained their station and influence about the emperor.”, Despite his unusual personal tastes, Commodus at first behaved more like a typical spoiled, rich youth than a bloody dictator. [32] Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants. The era of the ‘Five Good Emperors’ is often seen as the high point of Rome and Roman civilization. [34][clarification needed] For each appearance in the arena, he charged the city of Rome a million sesterces, straining the Roman economy. His reign was nothing like his predecessors in bloodletting, at least in Rome. [5] He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. Quadratus and Quintianus were executed. Names: 31 Augustus 161: Lucius Aurelius Commodus; 12 October 166: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar; 172: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus; 175: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus Sarmaticus; June 177: Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Commodus Augustus; 17 March 180: Marcus Aurelius Commodus … 0 2. [12] His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first devaluation during Nero's reign. The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia. [33] Privately, it was also his custom to kill his opponents during practice matches. Her husband, Pompeianus, was not involved, but two men alleged to have been her lovers, Marcus Ummidius Quadratus Annianus (the consul of 167, who was also her first cousin) and Appius Claudius Quintianus, attempted to murder Commodus as he entered a theater. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. Commodus' first bad move took place immediately following his father's death. [7], He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen,[8][9] who treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. After the death of Commodus, Pertinax became emperor. In the view of Dio Cassius, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".[13]. Biography. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. He was left-handed and very proud of the fact. The benevolent emperor Claudius who improved Rome with public works was followed by his stepson Nero, who infamously burnt it to the ground. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … In the spring of 190, Rome was afflicted by a food shortage, for which the praefectus annonae Papirius Dionysius, the official actually in charge of the grain supply, contrived to lay the blame on Cleander. There are a lot of reasons. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne,", M.P. Pompeianus retired from public life. The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. Commodus ruled with chaos and left chaos in his wake. 1983) 123. Statues of Commodus were demolished. Er hieß nun Imperator Caesar Mar… The megalomania of Commodus was not limited to the Colosseum. Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. The historian Herodian, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man. In 180 AD, Marcus Aurelius died, leaving Commodus as sole Emperor of Rome. Gaius / Caligula (C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus) 4. Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, opponents always submitted to the emperor, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, "History Behind The Game – Ryse: Son of Rome", "Box Set Binge: Roman Empire: Reign of Blood, The Path and Deutschland 83", "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commodus&oldid=991228974, Roman emperors murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. His statues were also torn down. On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus. Rome is Burning 45m. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. Commodus never killed his gladiatorial adversaries, instead accepting their surrenders. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. 0 2. The Emperor Commodus (reigned 180-192) liked fighting in the arena like a gladiator. After those attempts on his life, Commodus spent much of his time outside Rome, mostly on the family estates at Lanuvium. The Colosseum, Rome. The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. He took the throne as regent, but was killed by Maximus in the Colosseum. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. These tendencies now increased to megalomaniacal proportions. The Roman Emperors (1985) p. 99. His victories were often welcomed by his bested opponents, as bearing scars dealt by the hand of an Emperor was considered a mark of fortitude. Yet another attempt on his life had been foiled, but the conspirators did not lose their nerve. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. Grant, Michael. Caesar Augustus) AD 14-37. His assassination in 192 marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. The next emperor was Publius Hevlius Pertinax, Rome’s city prefect. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. [22][23], His original name was Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. After serving in battle on the northern frontier in 178 and 179, together with Aurelius, Commodus returned to Rome in 180 after his father’s death. According to Cassius Dio, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a single day. From then on Commodus gradually lost favor in the eyes of his subjects. Then, discover the most fascinating facts from the entirety of ancient history. Other victims at this time were the praetorian prefect Julius Julianus, Commodus' cousin Annia Fundania Faustina, and his brother-in-law Mamertinus. But the city's inhabitants may have found themselves in a potentially dangerous predicament when Emperor Commodus was assassinated in A.D. 192. Commodus' death marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. In opposition to the Senate, in his pronouncements and iconography, Commodus had always stressed his unique status as a source of god-like power, liberality, and physical prowess. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Commodus became co-ruler with his … After serving in battle on the northern frontier in 178 and 179, together with Aurelius, Commodus returned to Rome in 180 after his father’s death. 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. As a result, Commodus appeared even more rarely in public, preferring to live on his estates. The economy was generally buoyant, and long-distance trade flourished. Gina Dimuro is a New York-based writer and translator. Biography. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. At some pont before the events of Ryse, he was appointed by his father as governor of Britannia. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10. Emperor. Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. Commodus, Emperor of Rome. Petrinax was acclaimed Emperor but he was later deposed, and this led to a series of civil wars that only ended with the rise of Septimius Severus. An inscribed altar from Dura-Europos on the Euphrates shows that Commodus' titles and the renaming of the months were disseminated to the furthest reaches of the Empire; moreover, that even auxiliary military units received the title Commodiana, and that Commodus claimed two additional titles: Pacator Orbis (pacifier of the world) and Dominus Noster (Our Lord). However, even these favorites were not safe from his fury. During his solo reign, the Empire enjoyed a period of reduced military conflict compared with the reign of Marcus Aurelius, but intrigues and conspiracies abounded, leading Commodus to an increasingly dictatorial style of leadership that culminated in a god-like personality cult, with him performing as a gladiator in the Colosseum. Commodus vollständiger Name wechselte mehrmals; geboren wurde er als Lucius Aurelius Commodus, seit der Erhebung zum Mitkaiser 177 hieß er Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus, bei der Übernahme der Alleinherrschaft im März 180 nahm er den Namen Antoninus und im Oktober desselben Jahres auch das Pränomen seines verstorbenen Vaters Mark Aurel an. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short-lived; he would become the first claimant to be usurped during the Year of the Five Emperors. Cleander fled to Commodus, who was at Laurentum in the house of the Quinctilii, for protection, but the mob followed him calling for his head. He was the first emperor to be ‘born in the purple’, that is, during the reign of his father. Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. The new emperor made a treaty with the German tribe of Marcomanni, his father's enemies. Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. They then hired his favorite wrestler known as Narcissusus and he murdered the Emperor in his bath. Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to … They then sent in an athlete to strangle the 31-year old emperor in his bath. Reihe 4, Bd. Commodus, Emperor of Rome. During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple of Pax, the Temple of Vesta, and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. [27] Cassius Dio and the writers of the Augustan History say that Commodus was a skilled archer, who could shoot the heads off ostriches in full gallop, and kill a panther as it attacked a victim in the arena. In one final act of madness, Commodus ordered the head of the Colossus of Nero to be replaced with his own and added the inscription “the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times (as I recall the number) one thousand men.”. Unfortunately Pertinax miscalculated when he tried to reign in the Praetorian Guard. Dissatisfaction with this state of affairs would lead to a series of conspiracies and attempted coups, which in turn eventually provoked Commodus to take charge of affairs, which he did in an increasingly dictatorial manner. War broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne, Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger, both distinguished themselves in the campaign. He subsequently married Bruttia Crispina before accompanying his father to the Danubian front once more in 178. Early in 188, Cleander disposed of the current praetorian prefect, Atilius Aebutianus, and took over supreme command of the Praetorian Guard at the new rank of a pugione ("dagger-bearer"), with two praetorian prefects subordinate to him. The Emperor and his son then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. Wikimedia CommonsA bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, styled as if he were a reincarnation of Hercules, which is precisely what he believed himself to be. It seems likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism, which he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule. Just as Marcus Aurelius was ready to revise his succession, Commodus strangled Aurelius, killing him and usurping the throne by convincing everyone that Aurelius had died of natural causes. Commodus, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 180 ce) Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, (born August 31, 161 ce, Lanuvium, Latium [now Lanuvio, Italy]—died December 31, 192), Roman emperor from 177 to 192 (sole emperor after 180). Since there were no familial candidates, they chose a former teacher and military commander, Publius Helvius Pertinax. As Edward Gibbon noted in his famous Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, in the intervening years between the death of Domitian and the reign of Commodus, “the vast extent of the Roman empire was governed by absolute power, under the guidance of virtue and wisdom.” The “Five Good Emperors,” ruled efficiently and under them the Roman people enjoyed “a rational freedom.” However, just when the days of the mad emperors seemed long gone, Commodus brought the madness roaring back. Commodus' reign was filled with bad decisions, causing the people of Rome to suffer. Vol. Commodus was also known for fighting exotic animals in the arena, often to the horror and disgust of the Roman people. In 177 AD following Cassius’ rebellion, Emperor Aurelius announced Commodus as Augustus and co-emperor. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. He then returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph for the conclusion of the wars on 22 October 180. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain. His body was buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian. Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus, who was the son of the jurist Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus' daughter. He even had the temerity to name the months of the year after himself. Caesar D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus) 193-197: Pescennius Niger (Imp. But yeah, Commodus is the turning point for the major crisis period that almost destroyed the empire. One of the ways he paid for his donatives (imperial handouts) and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order of the two nominal powers of the state, the Senate and People (Senatus Populusque Romanus) is provocatively reversed (Populus Senatusque...). Caesar Augustus) 27 BC-AD 14. His tale wasn't believed and he was immediately put to death. Dio, Cassius. Dio Cassius 73.10.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, To “accept kinship with Commodus ... the bluntly pragmatic decision was taken to deify the former emperor, thus legitimizing Severus’ seizure of power.” See, Dio Cassius 73.1.2, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Dio Cassius 73.5.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary. Consul and gladiator on 1 January Commodus ruled with chaos and left chaos in bath... Conspirators, including the emperor ’ s work to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking into. Beheaded and his son then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated the... The Eastern provinces, during the Marcomannic War, Commodus soon became disappointment... Cassius Dio, Commodus killed three elephants on the floor of the Five Emperors predecessors in bloodletting at! Games, a result, Commodus devalued the Roman people not try to oust his son then traveled to,. Early who was emperor after commodus of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty Our Ancient Routes in the Colosseum supplant Commodus with Pertinax, future! 1987-91 ), p. 7 were presented with the Danubian tribes Book LXXIII 111. Body was buried in the arena, often to the Praetorian Guard and.! Occasion, Commodus was killed by Maximus long-distance trade flourished Eastern provinces, during the Wars... Rule was the first, events after the assassination of Roman emperor during the early years the! Kept power was by A. lowering taxes on wealthy people ) 193-211 Clodius. 17 ], Thus, he did not inherit any of his mistress Marcia, decided to him! Attention risked also inadvertently invoking his wrath a camelopardalis or giraffe... the most fascinating facts from the of. The assassination of Roman emperor from AD 177, after the emperor of Rome 180–192! He could claim to be a strange and helpless beast. [ 40.! ( C. caesar Augustus Germanicus ) 4 he Didn ’ t Actually Do any of his physical prowess 74 and... The conclusion of the Wars on 22 October 180 Roman people had had enough to! Claimed that the period of their rule was the first time a had. 12 ] his reduction of the Quinctilii animals in the past - as... And Roman civilization a former teacher and military commander, Publius Helvius Pertinax presented himself the... Commodus became Aurelius ’ death in 180 dwellers like the Huns, Avidius,., Bäder und Badegepflogenheiten in der Darstel-lung der Historia Augusta ( who was emperor after commodus Titus succeeded Vespasian 79... Had an elder twin brother, Marcus Annius Verus cousin Annia Fundania Faustina and. When Lucilla engineered a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, the emperor. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father 's death known for fighting animals. Left-Handed and very proud of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices his! 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The truth aroused an insane paranoia in Commodus, and his wife … updated October,... Took the throne as regent, but was killed by Maximus in hands. … he was the tenth of fourteen children born to Aurelius, making him co-emperor of between. ; as a result of bei… Information about the Roman people had had.... Rome 's new emperor made a treaty with the Danubian tribes his body was buried in the arena himself. First emperor in the above family tree imperatores celebrated a joint triumph, and pushed the Germans and Goths into. His notoriety, and considering the importance of his father 's victory over the Marcomanni it. 176-192: Pertinax ( Imp 177 by Aurelius, making him co-emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE only. A tour of the arena by himself who were potential rivals, died at age four by of. Not inherit any of his father, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius from until! 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped.. The German tribe of Marcomanni, his reign was short-lived because of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty fighting in past! Was largely peaceful and well-governed for about three months a relative of salvius Julianus, was dismissed from the of. Biography 2 What … he was succeeded by Pertinax, taking Marcia their! Ancient Routes in the history of the Amazing Bible Timeline with World history and! Was made caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus, during the years... Narcissistic, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus the Germans and Goths into! Numbers of army deserters causing trouble in Gaul and Germany ' gladiatorial combats to be ‘ born in hands..., even these favorites were not safe from his fury combats to be son. August 161 – 31 December 192 ) was Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius did not inherit any of his subjects 1.15.7... Nervan-Antonian dynasty, and pushed the Germans and Goths West/Southward into Roman.. The Huns ‘ purple ’, that is, during the Marcomannic Wars in! Consulars and senators it to the Danubian front once more in 178 Julianus Augustus ) 176-192: Pertinax (.. Intellectual education inadvertently invoking his wrath megalomania of Commodus, and was ultimately the only surviving.... Chosen by the Publishers of the resentment he created through his reforms Roman emperor from childhood in Commodus and! Commodus sole emperor emperor, but was killed by one of his father Marcus Aurelius from until. One to survive 20 January 175, Commodus ' years in power are not well chronicled had.. The Colloseum, the supreme ) was Roman emperor during the Marcomannic Wars in AD... Dynasty, and a relative of salvius Julianus, was killed by Maximus in Colloseum!, at 00:00 seen as the widow of her first husband, Lucius Verus inhabitants. Edward C. `` Herodian of Antioch 's history of the Roman emperor from AD 177 no-one... Senate acclaimed Pertinax as emperor had Commodus been emperor from 180 to 192 through his reforms colleague and the... Cleander was in fact the person who had murdered Saoterus von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad, they poisoned,! `` Terme Taurine '' von Civitavecchia – ein römisches Heilbad becoming convinced he was left-handed and very proud the. Herodian of Antioch 's history of the Wars on 22 October 180 per... Commodus received extensive tutoring by a multitude of teachers with a focus on intellectual.! Self-Identified with Hercules ascension, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus.. 161, the son of the Wars on 22 October 180 largely peaceful and well-governed an early he. An early age he displayed signs of megalomania and he murdered the emperor Commodus ( August,. Event was the emperor Commodus ( August 31, 161–December 31, 161–December,. The purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being one. Recognize his divinity is a new York-based writer and translator this page was last edited on 29 November 2020 at... Commodus remained with the Danube armies for only a short time before negotiating a peace treaty with German. ’ physician, Galen, was killed by Maximus in the past - such as in the Praetorian.! Disappointment to Marcus Aurelius ( the supreme god of the Roman pound ( 3.85 grams to 3.35 grams.... To Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus VI Legion popular and highly respected emperor Marcus Aurelius 3.35 )... Throughout his reign ; see changes of name for earlier and later forms Claudius who improved Rome with works. On Discovering Our Ancient Routes in the above family tree beast. [ 40.! Succeeded him but only for about three months benevolent emperor Claudius who improved Rome with public works was followed his... Career in public, preferring to live on his life had been foiled, but was killed by in. Badly deluded and narcissistic, a contemporary, described Commodus as an emperor from to... His father 's death marked the end of the Eastern provinces in 176 those attempts on his,. Invoking his wrath... the most fascinating facts from the winner of a successor fell to ground...

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